Defining and Identifying Old Hickory vs. Hickory Furniture


Two antique hickory settees

Precise definitions are important in any field, and the field of antiques is no exception. We have written previously about how loosely the word “antique” itself is used, for instance to describe new mass-produced merchandise in home decor shops (see article), and about our definitions of “rustic” and “Adirondack” furniture (see article).

We now turn to defining the difference between “Old Hickory” and “Hickory” furniture, which is a query that customers have occasionally posed to us.

In the world of rustic furniture, hickory refers to bark-on hickory poles (i.e., unpeeled branches and trunks of young hickory trees). Milled hickory boards and turnings were also used to construct antique furniture, but not antique rustic furniture. This can sometimes create confusion, for instance in the case of a woman who hoped to sell us a pair of country ladder-back chairs that she assumed were something that rustic furniture collectors would want because they were made out of hickory wood.

Another thing that can be confusing is that several of the rustic hickory furniture manufacturers made a few lines of furniture for a limited number of years that had no hickory parts. These were constructed of willow, pine, oak or chestnut, but sometimes were of the same designs as the rustic furniture that those manufacturers made from hickory poles.

Finally, we have occasionally encountered confusion caused by the names of two makers of non-rustic contemporary and reproduction furniture (Hickory Chair Company and Old Hickory Tannery) which are very similar to the names of the traditional rustic hickory furniture companies.

We find it easiest to avoid this terminology muddle by referring to all manufactured rustic hickory furniture with the catchall title of “Indiana hickory.” This works because the handful of companies that produced classic rustic hickory pole furniture from about 1900-1960, were all located in Indiana. (We do occasionally come across antique “homemade” hickory pole furniture from other regions of the country, but we classify that as unique rustic furniture, not the manufactured furniture that we are describing here.)

So the best way to continue our discussion of “Old Hickory” vs. “Hickory” rustic furniture is by describing the various Indiana hickory furniture companies.

The Indiana Hickory Furniture Manufacturers

There were six major companies (and several minor companies) producing rustic furniture made with hickory poles in Indiana during the first half of the 20th century. (See more discussion of these companies in A History of the Old Hickory Chair Company and the Indiana Hickory Furniture Movement by Ralph Kylloe, 1995)

1. Old Hickory Furniture Company, Martinsville, Indiana

Old Hickory was the most prolific and longest lasting rustic hickory furniture manufacturer, so more of their products turn up on the market than do the products of all the other Indiana hickory manufacturers combined. Theirs is the only furniture that can technically be called “Old Hickory” and we try to abide by that in our descriptions, for instance by titling our website listings of furniture made by the five other companies either just “Hickory” or “Indiana Hickory.”

Not all dealers or auctioneers are as careful about that nomenclature, however, so you cannot always be sure that a piece that a seller calls Old Hickory was actually made by Old Hickory Furniture Company. (Sellers also sometimes call a piece “old hickory” meaning it is old and made of hickory poles, not that it was made by Old Hickory.) It helps if the furniture is branded or tagged with an authentic Old Hickory identifier, but the company did not consistently stamp all of the furniture it produced. So if a piece is marked Old Hickory, non-specialist dealers and customers can be sure of its maker, but if it is not marked, it does not necessarily mean that the piece was not made by Old Hickory.

After decades of handling and studying hickory furniture and collecting original catalogs from all of the manufacturers, we can usually pinpoint its maker from various clues, so we often do not even look for a brand before making a purchase. When we advertise an unmarked piece as Old Hickory, we are always happy to explain to a potential buyer how we identified it as such in that particular case.

Here are some examples of changes in Old Hickory’s name, maker’s marks and furniture styles as they evolved throughout the years.

a) Old Hickory Chair Company

The first incarnation of the Old Hickory company was called Old Hickory Chair Company, a name which lasted from 1895-1921.

Old Hickory Chair Company brand

This early brand says “Chair Co” on the center line.

Old Hickory Chair Company also sometimes put a paper label with the Andrew Jackson logo on their furniture, and we have occasionally had pieces that retained that early label, pictured here.

Old Hickory Chair Company paper label Andrew Jackson

Below is an early Old Hickory Chair Company dresser with woven hickory bark panels.

Ol Hickory Chair Company woven dresser

b) Old Hickory Furniture Company, early eras

When Old Hickory Chair Company changed its name to Old Hickory Furniture Company in 1921, it used the brand shown below, modified just slightly from the earlier brand. This stamp was used into the 1930s.

Old Hickory Furniture Company early brand

The middle line was changed from “Chair Co” to “Furn Co”

Here is a piece from that era with that brand:

Old Hickory spindled arm chair

c) Old Hickory Furniture Company, middle eras

The brand pictured below was used throughout the 1940s, and is what appears on the majority of stamped pieces we encounter.

Old Hickory Furniture Company 1940s brand

The middle line was changed to say “Martinsville” with “Indiana” spelled out fully below it.

During the 1930s and 1940s, Old Hickory also sometimes marked their furniture with a “Bruce tag,” a small round copper tag that contained the year (e.g., “39”) that the furniture was treated with the company’s Bruce preservative.

Old HIckory Bruce tag

There are hundreds of furniture designs from this era, but here is one example with a 1940s brand.

Old Hickory coffee table

d) Old Hickory Furniture Company, final eras

The style but not the content of Old Hickory’s brand changed a bit in the 1950s to a rectangular shape. That stamp seems to have been used on some, but not all pieces made in the 50’s, and we do not often see it.

Old Hickory brand 1950s

The following drop-leaf table with casters is an example of a table made during that era.

Old Hickory barbeque table

After 1960 Old Hickory Furniture Company shifted to making generic furniture that was not in a rustic style and not made from hickory. In 1978, Old Hickory Furniture Company closed its operations in Martinsville, Indiana.

The company was eventually purchased and reopened under new ownership in 1982 as “Old Hickory Furniture Shelbyville” in Shelbyville, Indiana where its plant is still located. Therefore, any furniture with an Old Hickory Shelbyville tag (pictured below) was made sometime between 1982 and today. Since this is contemporary furniture that is still being manufactured, it is not something that we buy or sell.

Old Hickory Shelbyville tag

Oval brass plate that marks Old Hickory Furniture Shelbyville.

Even when a contemporary hickory piece does not have a brass Shelbyville tag, it is not difficult to distinguish it from early Old Hickory pieces. Although some of the Shelbyville furniture is based on early Old Hickory styles, the modern interpretations of the designs, the hickory poles used, the construction techniques, the weaving and upholstery, and the finish on the wood all make it immediately recognizable (and we think undesirable!) to a trained eye.

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An Exceptional Iroquois Bird Effigy Ladle


Iroquois effigy feast ladle

This stunningly large sculptural object is an eloquent example of an Iroquois feast ladle dating from the late 18th/early 19th century (circa 1780-1820). This would have been used for portioning food into individual bowls from a caldron or large serving bowl, particularly during celebratory or ceremonial feasts.

It is made from a maple burl whose swirls, knots and irregular grain resulted from stunted twig buds that failed to elongate into limbs so grew instead as a round protuberance from a tree trunk. This burl ladle has a burnished patina and edge wear along the right side of the scoop, both attesting to its many years of past use.

Iroquois fest ladle bowl

Front and back of the scoop portion of the ladle showing the burl grain, edge wear and patina.

There is archeological evidence that the earliest Woodlands peoples used eating and serving ladles made of shell and antler, and journals kept by Europeans during their first encounters with Native Americans in the 1600s documented that wooden ladles were commonly used for eating meat stews and cornmeal mush.

While every individual in a tribe had a personal eating ladle, only one feast ladle was needed per clan, so this larger form of effigy ladle is scarce indeed.* In a study of 701 ladles (with and without effigies) in the collection of the Rochester Museum and Science Center, Betty Colt Prisch (1982) notes that the ladles ranged in length from 2”-12”, with the vast majority being 4”-8” long individual eating ladles. Only a few examples of the larger feast ladles in the 12” size range are in the collection, which began being formed over 175 years ago by the museum’s anthropologists.

Iroquois feast ladle

This ladle is 13.5″ long and 8.75″ wide. The photo below showing it next to a personal eating ladle emphasizes the contrast in size, and thereby function, of the two ladles.

Iroquois effigy ladles

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Snow Shoes with Provenance


Tlingit snow shoes

It is always rewarding to find a quality artifact of the material culture of indigenous peoples (such as the First Nations in Canada and Native Americans in the U.S.), but even better when its provenance is known. More often than not the story behind an antique’s previous owners is lost in time, but in the case of these snow shoes we know quite a bit about their owner and collection history.

Chris Henne's study

The snow shoes on display in Chris Henne’s study, circa 1900.

These snow shoes were acquired by Christian Henne II on a trip to the Klondike in 1897. They were passed down in his family until they were recently sold by his now elderly granddaughter. They are in remarkably good condition, having hung on a wall since they were acquired 118 years ago. Tribal members would reweave their own snow shoes whenever the babiche wore out, but they would reuse the same frames for many years. Since neither the weaving nor frames of these snow shoes show signs of heavy use, they had most likely been recently made when given as a gift to Henne.

What is particularly intriguing about this rare form of snow shoes is that they were made by a cultural group (Tlingit) and within a region (Pacific Northwest Coast) that are not typically associated with snow travel accoutrements. However, the Northwest Coast Tlingit peoples also occupy less temperate regions away from the immediate coast, eastward into the mountainous region of the Yukon, which explains why snow shoes were part of some Tlingit tribes’ tradition.

Tlingit map

The Snow Shoes

Tlingit snow shoes

These snow shoes are a style made by Inland Tlingit, which includes the tribes (called Kwáan) Áa Tlein Ḵwáan of the Atlin Lake area, Deisleen Ḵwáan of the Teslin Lake area, and T’aaku Kwáan of the Taku River basin.

Tlingit groups



tlingit snow shoes upturned toes

They have two-piece birch frames, bent into rounded, upturned toes where the wood is spliced and lashed together.

tlingit snow shoe toe

The frames are dyed red, and the fine weaving is either babiche (strips of semi-tanned hide) or sinew (dried tendons). The middle of the snowshoe where the foot is placed has wider weave, laced with stronger strips of rawhide.

Tlingit snow shoes foot section

While men usually made the frames, both men and women wove the netted sections of the shoes.

Native woman weaving snow shoes

(Library of Congress, circa 1900)

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West Coast Flea Scenes


On a recent trip to visit family in Los Angeles and San Francisco, we spent a couple of mornings at well-known flea markets in each of the cities. We were curious about the buying and selling scene at west coast flea markets, and were also hoping to find some things for inventory.

Before dawn on the morning after we landed at LAX, we made our way to the Santa Monica Airport Antiques and Collectibles Market. It was not yet light when it opened to early buyers at 6 am, but there we were, trained from years of attending the Brimfield, Mass markets to arrive while dealers were unpacking to get the first look at their wares.

santa monica airport flea market

Jeff took off ahead of me to start roving the field, while being cautious not to make purchases in the dark – even a flashlight is no substitute for daylight when examining an antique’s condition and authenticity (does that sound like we’ve learned this the hard way?!)

santa monica flea market

A few dealers already had their booths set up, and had even brought good camp lanterns to illuminate their wares. This booth had a sign that we sort of liked (not pictured), but ultimately passed on (and now neither of us can even remember what it said, so that tells you something).

santa monica flea market

Other booths had no lights at all. We were momentarily attracted to these painted surveyors’ poles in the dark, but decided they were nothing special after all.

santa monica flea market

Before we arrived, Jeff had said “I bet I’ll see at least one dealer I know.” As he was walking around in the murky gray light shortly after we arrived, he heard a voice behind him saying, “Hey, what are you doing here?” So here is a blurry photo taken in low light of two high-speed walkers – Jeff and a California fine arts dealer whom he knows from Brimfield shows.

That dealer, who sets up at the flea market every month, described it as “A lot of shabby chic, but you can sometimes find things.” The operative definition of “things” in this context of dealer-speak, is real antiques with intrinsic value.

santa monica flea market

I wish I could follow that sentence with an illustration of real “things,” but shabby chic, as in the booth pictured above, did indeed rule the day.

santa monica flea market

When the day dawned, Jeff began focusing in earnest, revisiting booths again and again until everything was unpacked. The palm trees helped me realize I was not in Maine and not at Brimfield, but in fact was on vacation, sort of.

santa monica flea market

Other popular categories were vintage clothing and industrial lighting, not so different from trendy vintage goods back east.


santa monica flea market

This tailored wool jacket from the 1920s tempted me, but it is hard to shop for oneself during business hours (wait, did I say I was there on business? jet lag confusion, I guess).

We kept our eyes sharpened for anything related to our rustic specialty, but the pickings in that regard were indeed slim.

santa monica flea market

This coppery surfaced leaping stag caught my eye, but close-up I could see that it was new and cheesy. However, I did take a shine to the (newish) gilt-painted wooden tiered serving stand which I might have purchased to use at home, if I was indeed anywhere close to home.

santa monica flea market

These owl andirons qualified as a rustic accessory, but in addition to being heavy they were in bad condition – definitely not worth buying. Keep Reading

Large-Scale Canoeing Photograph


canadian pacific photo french river

This is an historic photograph of a canoeist, probably an Ojibwe guide, who is navigating a rapids called Blue Chute on the French River in Ontario. It is housed in its original oak frame that is inscribed “Canadian Pacific” along the bottom. With overall dimensions of 35.5″ wide x 29.5″ high, it has an eye-catching presence.

Canadian Pacific Photo French River

There are several layers of history revealed in this circa 1910 photo. First, it is an artifact of the original era of passenger railway travel across Canada. Second, it captures a place, the French River, that was an important fur trade route. Finally, it conveys something about early 20th century canoeing traditions.

Canadian Pacific Railway

We contacted an archivist with the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) who confirmed what we had learned through buying and selling several other CPR photos in the past. These large-format photographs captured iconic Canadian landscape scenes and were hung in CPR stations as “simple, yet stunning and effective, advertising tools for Canadian Pacific and Canada.” Aimed at attracting tourists from within and beyond Canada, the photos captured scenes closely tied to Canadian identity and its proud links to the incredible scenic beauty of the country. The CPR photographs could be found on display until the 1970s when all of the stations eventually closed.

Although we do not have photos of other CPR images we have owned, we do have images from our past inventory of a large-scale photograph from another railway system, the Grand Trunk Railway, which had a similar approach to promoting Canadian rail travel. The Grand Trunk was an important rail system in Canada and the northern U.S. from the 1850s to the 1920s.

Grand Trunk Railway photo

Grand Trunk Railway photo

This early 1900’s photo depicts a romantic scene of a well-dressed couple on an outing in which the man rows the woman who is nestled in the stern facing him. Its captions reads: “McLean Channel Among the 30,000 islands of the Georgian Bay.” Even the location of this particular photo, also in an inscribed oak frame, is not far from the subject of the CPR photo – the French River.

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Trees and the Rustic Furniture They Become, Part II


This article discusses six species of trees that were less commonly used during the original eras of rustic furniture design than the five species described in our previous journal article, Trees and the Rustic Furniture They Become, Part I.  Photos and range maps of each tree species are presented, along with examples of antique rustic furniture made from each type of tree within the regions where it grows.

American Elm (Ulmus Americana)

elm trunk and leaves

American Elm trees, prized for their vase-like shape and broad canopy, were once common in forests and cultivated landscapes throughout eastern North America. While most mature elm trees (over 150 years old) have died in the past 50 years due to Dutch elm disease, saplings and young trees of this species can be found growing in forests throughout its range from the plains states eastward in the U.S., and into southern Canada and the Maritime Provinces.

elm tree range map

Elm is a strong, dense wood that has been used over the centuries for products that needed to endure heavy use, such as wagon wheels and ship decks. Native Americans traditionally used elm wood for mortars. The Iroquoian tribes also used elm bark much like eastern tribes used birch bark to make utilitarian objects such as canoes and baskets. The photo below shows a set of rustic furniture with elm bark surfaces that was made by Ojibwa Indians in the Georgian Bay region of Canada. The thick, furrowed bark is distinctive, and makes a strong seat or table top.

elm bark furniture

Black Willow (Salix nigra)

Black willow tree trunk

Black Willow grows into the largest tree of the ninety species of willows occurring in North America, and it is the only commercially important willow. It is a short-lived, fast-growing tree found in wet and often sandy regions of river margins where it thrives at or slightly below water level.  Although it has an extensive range in the southeastern portions of the U.S., it reaches its maximum size only in the lower Mississippi River Valley and Gulf Coastal Plain. Black willow trees yield a light, straight-grained wood.

black willow range map

This glider was made by Indiana Willow Products Company of Martinsville, Indiana, which was started in 1937 by former employees of Old Hickory Furniture Company. In the early years of its existence, the company made furniture frames out of willow in an attempt to distinguish itself from Old Hickory and Rustic Hickory Furniture companies, even though their furniture designs were nearly identical to their predecessors’, as seen in the familiar form of this glider.

Indiana Willow glider

A second example is this stockade-style desk made of willow. This was most likely also made by Indiana Willow, as the design is based on a desk that appeared in an earlier Rustic Hickory Furniture Company catalog. While bark-on willow, like hickory, has an appealingly textured surface, hefting either this glider or desk reveals that willow wood is much less dense, making this furniture easier to move around.

willow desk

Since willow was a difficult wood to acquire commercially, Indiana Willow Products Company soon began making furniture from hickory like their competitors. Early Indiana Willow pieces made of willow are rarely seen on the market – these two pieces in our inventory are among the few that we’ve owned.

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Historic Boat Maker’s Signs


arnold trail boats and canoes signs

These two signs once marked a canoe and boat building establishment that was active in Maine during the 1940s. Solon is a town in central Maine through which the Kennebec River flows. The Arnold Trail Boats and Canoes company appears in a list of Maine canoe builders from the 1870’s to the present that was compiled by the Penobscot Marine Museum for their 2001 exhibit “Bark to Canvas: The Evolution of a Maine Canoe.” So far, all that we have been able to find out about this company is its location, the era of its existence, and that its owner built canoes.

The larger sign (80.5″ wide x 2″ deep x 32.5″ high) is single-sided, so most likely hung on the front exterior of the shop. arnold trail boats and canoes sign

It is painted on a clear-finish birch veneer surface and has a molded frame.

arnold trail boats and canoes sign

arnold trail boats and canoes sign

The hand-painted lettering is red with gold outlining.

arnold trail boats and canoes sign

The smaller (34″ wide x .75″ deep x 11″ high), solid wood sign is double-sided, so it either hung on a post at the roadside or perpendicular to the building at its doorway.

arnold trail boats and canoes sign

The background is painted gold, and the chamfered edge and lettering are navy blue.

arnold trail boats and canoes sign atsign11

In both signs, the name Arnold Trail is done in the same script lettering.

arnold trail boats and canoes sign

These signs evoke the history of two distinct time periods. First, they are artifacts of an earlier period of commercial canoe building in Maine which began in the late 1880s. Most likely the canoes made at the Arnold Trail Boats & Canoes shop were crafted of wood and canvas in a traditional Maine design. A classic Maine trip canoe, such as the one made by the E. M. White company pictured below, is characterized by its wide, shallow hull making a stable and large capacity interior suitable for holding packs and paddlers on long canoe trips.

E.M. White canoe

E. M. White canoe, circa 1920 (Bert Lincoln Call photo)

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Trees and the Rustic Furniture They Become, Part I


Makers of rustic furniture in the late 1800s through the early 1900s typically used wood native to their local region as the raw material for their creations. Since the distribution of North American trees changes with climatic conditions from east to west and north to south, so, too, does traditional rustic furniture change in materials, and thus in form and style, along geographic gradients.

This article describes five species of trees commonly used during the original eras of rustic furniture making, and shows examples of furniture pieces that were made from each type of tree in the regions where it grows. Part II will continue this theme by describing five different species of trees and the furniture made from them.

White Birch (Betula papyrifera)

white birch

(photo –

White birch is an early successional species, meaning that it is among the first trees to colonize open spaces where forests have burned or woodlots have been cut over, where there is plenty of direct sunlight to support their rapid growth. It is a distinctive species that stands out in a crowd, so is familiar to most anyone who walks in the woods or drives along country roads in the northern tier of North America.

range map of white birch

Range of white birch (

The stark, papery bark of white birch is an iconic emblem of rustic furniture; it is indeed hard to think of a piece of furniture made with bark-on white birch that would not be considered rustic. In the circa 1905 secretary pictured below, the craftsman Ernest Stowe used just the bark of white birch laid over a case of milled pine boards to clad the exterior of this exquisite case piece. Stowe gathered materials for his furniture in the Saranac Lake region of New York’s Adirondacks where he lived and worked. The legs and trim of the secretary, as well as the entire chair, are done in bark-on yellow birch poles and rods. Stowe was thus a progenitor of what we now regard as Adirondack-style furniture using these two species of wood.

Ernest Stowe Secretary

 Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

yellow birch

(photo –

In contrast to white birch, yellow birch is found in mature hardwood forests. Since it, too, gets established where there is abundant sunlight, it tends to grow in gaps created by fallen, wind-thrown trees. It grows most commonly in mid- to upper-mountain slopes, but occurs patchier at lower elevations. Yellow birch can live for hundreds of years, so in the right locations it is not unusual to see very large, old trees and its younger saplings with golden bark scattered among other hardwoods such as sugar maple and beech.

range of yellow birch

Range of yellow birch (

The circa 1920 table picture below was made by Lee Fountain, a craftsman who worked in the western Adirondacks near the town of Wells. He is most recognized for his use of yellow birch root masses, which forms the base of this table. Whereas Stowe used the golden patina of yellow birch twigs and branches to great decorative effect, Fountain’s furniture emphasized the sculptural drama of roots that had been gnarled and shaped over rocks and other tree roots, or simply spread like props to support the trunk and upper branches of a 60′-70′ tall tree.

Lee Fountain table

Yellow birch tree roots

Yellow birch roots growing over a rock in the Adirondacks (

Hickory (Carya tomentosa)

hickory tree

(photo –

There are about a dozen species of hickory trees native to North America, including shagbark, shellbark, mockernut, pignut, bitternut and pecan. Although the bark varies among the different hickories, the mockernut hickory, which is the most abundant of the hickory species, has dark ridges alternating with lighter veins of bark (shown above). It grows in humid environments that receive 20-35 inches of rain from April-September, and is more of a southern and midwestern species than are birches.

range map modernut hickory

Range of mockernut hickory (

Hickory is prized for furniture making because of is strength, hardness and flexibility. Although it is possible to find antique rustic furniture made from hickory by independent craftsmen who created their own designs, the vast majority of hickory furniture in the rustic antiques market was made by a half-dozen or so commercial furniture companies in Indiana beginning at the turn of the 20th century. Hickory formed the major structural elements of seating, tables and case pieces in manufactured hickory furniture, with milled woods such as oak and pine used on table, desk and dresser tops, arm rests and seats. In the uncommon circa 1930s wardrobe made by Rustic Hickory Furniture Company of LaPorte, Indiana pictured below, hickory poles comprise the frame and trim, while oak veneer and pine comprise the panels.

Rustic Hickory Furniture Company wardrobe

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Large Carved Caribou Lamp


Dube caribou lamp

Animal sculptures and carvings are traditional accents for rustic homes where they complement decorative schemes that are rich in organic textures and natural elements. An attractive animal carving that also fulfills the necessary function of lighting is all the better.

This lamp (26″ wide, 9″ deep, 32″ high) is a dramatically scaled carving of a caribou, created and signed by the artisan Arthur Dubé.

Dube caribou lamp

He was a member of a family of accomplished carvers from the Saint-Jean-Port-Joli region of Quebec (on the eastern shore of the St. Lawrence River about an hour northeast of Quebec City) which has been known for its tradition of folk carving since the early 1900s. Over the years we’ve had a number of lamps carved in the 1930s-1970s by the Dubé brothers Arthur, Clement and André, most often in the forms of moose, bear, squirrels, deer, rams and dogs. Caribou lamps are uncommon, as are any of their carved animal table lamps of such large dimensions.

Dube caribou lamp

This lamp is carved from butternut, which is one of the softer hardwoods that carves readily. The caribou, tree and base are carved from one piece of wood, and the removable antlers are carved separately.

Dube caribou lamp

The shade is also handmade, with alternating wood slats of butternut and cedar joined with lashing.


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Central American Rustic


 twig railing

The essence of traditional rustic design is that an object or structure incorporates unprocessed natural materials sourced from the local environment. Examples in the northern and central U.S. include cabins made of bark-on cedar logs, dressers clad in birch bark, and mirrors trimmed with yellow birch twigs. From the southern U.S. we have had chairs with rhododendron root lattice backs, stands with diamond willow bases, and even a mosaic twig-style sideboard made with palmetto fronds.

On a recent trip much further south – to Belize – we admired local rustic elements and architecture, the primary form being living quarters and cabanas with thatched roofs and bamboo-like interior walls.

belize cabana


poolside cabana

According to  local residents, the most long-lasting material for thatched roofs is the fronds of the Cahune Palm tree, which have a high silicon content. After seeing lots of finished roofs, we were finally able to see this palm tree growing in its natural habitat while on an ecotour traveling by boat up an estuary into a coastal rain forest.


A cahune palm tree along the Monkey River in Belize.

Transforming these fronds into roofs takes skill and teamwork.

thatched roof making



building a thatched roof


Here is a completed woven cahune palm frond roof from the outside:



And from the inside.


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